References & Resources

The following references and resources are aimed to support the content presented in the Infographic “Resident Centred Care for Meals”.


Malnutrition Prevalence (Up to 2 out of 3 residents have malnutrition)

NOTE: the prevalence of malnutrition in long term care is highly variant due to inconsistencies in how it is defined, assessed & reported

Up to 60% were malnourished

Public Health Agency of Canada PHAC. (2010). The chief public health officer’s report on the state of public health in Canada 2010 - Growing older: adding life to years.
Pdf version

Range of 29-54% were malnourished

Keller H, Vucea V, Slaughter SE, Jager-Wittenaar H, Lengyel C, Ottery FD, Carrier N. Prevalence of Malnutrition or Risk in Residents in Long Term Care: Comparison of Four Tools. J Nutr Gerontol Geriatr. 2019 Oct-Dec;38(4):329-344. doi: 10.1080/21551197.2019.1640165. Epub 2019 Jul 23. PMID: 31335280.

58% were malnourished

Volkert D, Pauly L, Stehle P, Sieber CC. Prevalence of malnutrition in orally and tube-fed elderly nursing home residents in Germany and its relation to health complaints and dietary intake. Gastroenterol Res Pract. 2011;2011:247315. doi: 10.1155/2011/247315. Epub 2011 May 19. PMID: 21687611

Inadequate protein, fluid and texture modified diets

Making most of mealtimes Summary Sheets, Research Institute for Aging, Online; accessed 23. Aug. 2023


A list of resources that are relevant to nutrition and food services in Long Term Care Settings 

Dietitians of Canada. (2022). Recommended National Standards for Long Term Care Nutrition and Foodservices. 
A summary of the LTC food and nutrition standards developed by Dietitians of Canada’s Gerontology Network that are recommended for adoption across Canada to provide consistent expectations for LTC homes.

CAN/HSO. (2023). Long-Term Care Services Standard
An updated standard that focuses on promoting good governance; upholding resident-centred care and enabling a meaningful quality of life for residents; ensuring high-quality and safe care; fostering a healthy and competent workforce; and promoting a culture of quality improvement and learning across long-term care (LTC) homes.

CHOICE+-Making Most of Mealtimes by the Research Institute for Aging (RIA)
A collection of resources, virtual tours and checklists from CHOICE+, an innovative program that aims to improve the mealtime experience for residents in long-term care.

Making most of mealtimes Summary Sheets, Research Institute for Aging (RIA)
Summary sheets on key findings and recommendations from a research study called Making the Most of Mealtimes (M3). The study explored what residents living in long-term care eat and drink, and what factors promote better nutrition. Developed by the RIA team in collaboration with the M3 research team led by Schlegel Research Chair Heather Keller.

Meals Matter, Tips to get patients ready for meals Alberta Health Services
A one pager that provides ideas on how to get patients ready for meals and to make meals enjoyable and easy to eat



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